In Series 5, "cracks" in time and space appear in almost every episode; these release energy that un-writes time, erasing things from existence so that they never existed at all. His companions refer to those events in the next season: And, in fairness, the Universe did blow up.
A basic understanding of the occurrence, risk factors, clinical features, and management of these procedures is of increasing importance to the nuclear medicine technologist. After reading this article, the technologist will be able to list the factors that increase the risk of contrast reactions; understand ways to minimize the occurrence of contrast reactions; and develop a plan to identify, treat, and manage the reactions effectively.
Keywords contrast reactions Iodinated contrast media are among the most commonly used injectables in radiology today. Modern iodinated contrast agents can be used almost anywhere in the body.
Most often they are used intravenously but can be administered intraarterially, intrathecally, and intraabdominally. They are usually safe, and adverse effects are generally mild and self-limiting.
Nonetheless, severe or life-threatening reactions can occur. Radiologists and other medical personnel involved with the use of iodinated contrast agents must be aware of the risk factors for reactions to contrast media.
They should be aware of and use strategies to minimize adverse events and be prepared to promptly recognize and manage them 1. They are classified on the basis of their physical and chemical characteristics, including their chemical structure, osmolality, iodine content, and ionization in solution 23.
The parent molecule from which the contrast agents are derived is benzene.
This is a toxic water-insoluble liquid. The carbon atoms on a benzene ring are numbered clockwise from 1 to 6. Benzoic acid is produced by introducing an acid group at position 1 on the benzene ring. This acid group permits the formation of salts or amides, which influence water solubility.
Iodine is the element used in contrast media as it possesses 3 important properties essential for the production of contrast media: Triiodobenzoic acid is made less toxic and less lipophilic fat-soluble by introducing side chains at positions 3 and 5 3.
Viscosity and osmolality play a part in the development of contrast reactions. Ionicity is the characteristic of a molecule to break up into a positively charged cation and a negatively charged anion, resulting in more molecules per kilogram of water and thus increasing osmolality.
Nonionic agents do not have this property and hence are less osmolar. Ionic and nonionic contrast media may be monomeric or dimeric. Typically, 3 iodine atoms are delivered with each benzene ring of a contrast medium.
If a contrast molecule contains only 1 benzene ring, it is called a monomer. To deliver more iodine with each molecule of contrast, 2 benzene rings may be combined to produce a dimer. This molecule would deliver 6 iodine atoms with each molecule.
In a solution, ionic monomers break up into their anion and cation components increasing osmolalitydelivering 3 iodine atoms a 2:TheINQUIRER publishes daily news, reviews on the latest gadgets and devices, and INQdepth articles for tech buffs and hobbyists.
We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. PET has become an established method for medical research and clinical routine diagnostics. Development and availability of new radiopharmaceuticals specific for particular diseases is one of the driving forces of the expansion of clinical nuclear medicine providing early .
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