Another variant, "doubletalk", also referring to deliberately ambiguous speech, did exist at the time Orwell wrote his book, but the usage of "doublespeak", as well as of "doubletalk", in the sense emphasizing ambiguity clearly postdates the publication of Nineteen Eighty-Four.
See Article History Number symbolism, cultural associations—including religious, philosophic, and aesthetic—with various numbers.
Humanity has had a love-hate relationship with numbers from the earliest times. Bones dating from perhaps 30, years ago show scratch marks that possibly represent the phases of the Moon.
The ancient Babylonians observed the movements of the planets, recorded them as numbers, and used them to predict eclipses and other astronomical phenomena. The priesthood of ancient Egypt used numbers to predict the flooding of the Nile. Pythagoreanisma cult of ancient Greecebelieved that numbers were the basis of the entire universe, which ran on numerical harmony.
Numbers were associated with names for magical purposes: More recently, cranks have sought the secrets of the universe in the dimensions of the Great Pyramid of Gizaan aberration so common that it even has a name—pyramidology.
Millions of otherwise rational people are terrified of the number 13, to the extent that hotels omit it from their floors, airplanes do not have a row 13, and the numbers for Formula 1 racing cars skip from 12 to 14 so that, for example, 22 cars would be numbered from 1 to Learned tomes are written about the significance of such stalwarts as the golden number 1.
Mathematics is the study of numbers, shapes, and related structures. Number mysticism belongs elsewhere and is generally categorized as numerology. Numerology sheds light on the innermost workings of the human mind but very little on the rest of the universe.
Mathematics, meanwhile, sheds light on much of the universe but, as yet, very little on human psychology. Between the two lies fruitful scientific ground, yet to be cultivated extensively. Numerals and numerology Numerical coincidences abound, and they are often so remarkable that it is difficult to explain them rationally.
Not surprisingly, many people become convinced that these coincidences have irrational explanations. What, for example, should be made of the following similarities not all of them numerological between U. Presidents Abraham Lincoln and John F.
Lincoln was elected president inKennedy in Both were assassinated on a Friday. Both were succeeded by Southern Democrats named Johnson. Andrew Johnson was born inLyndon Johnson in Booth shot Lincoln in a theatre and fled to a warehouse; Oswald shot Kennedy from a warehouse and fled to a theatre.
The first public suggestion that Lincoln should run for president proposed that his running mate should be John Kennedy. John Pendleton Kennedy was a Maryland politician. One explanation for coincidences of this kind is selective reporting. Anything that fits is kept; anything that does not is discarded.
Thus, the coincidence of day of the week for the assassinations is emphasized; the differences in month and number of day in the month are ignored. Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, Kennedy on November More subtly, only one choice is made from many possibilities, the one that maintains the numerological pattern.
Sometimes the date of birth is used, sometimes the date of election. If those do not work, how about the dates of college graduation, marriage, firstborn child, first election to office, or death?Read this article to learn about the Meaning, Nature and Characteristic of Management!
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