Autonomous Cognitive This is the initial stage of learning and is essential if the learner is to process successful through the other stages and is to move a stage where the skill can be performed.
We usually use performance to represent the amount of learning that has occurred, for the process of learning must be inferred on the basis of observations of change in performance.
This is the initial stage of learning and therefore is essential if the learner is to progress to the next stages with any success. For example, a golf player at a cognitive stage will look at how a type of shot is executed and try to copy it.
They are likely to hit the ball in the wrong direction, or not at all. A final example is in a game of volleyball, where a learner is trying to set the ball, it is likely to hit the palms of their hands, rather than the fingers, and therefore not get enough height on it, and Sorry, but full essay samples are available only for registered users Choose a Membership Plan so the ball is likely not go over the net.
The learner gathers information from range of sources, of which at this stage, the most efficient is usually a demonstration, which allows them to see the key requirements and to work through the performance mentally.
To learn the skill, it must be demonstrated correctly, otherwise the requirements will not be clear, and therefore the main guidance necessary at this stage is visual.
During this stage, the learner has little fluency and their movements are inconsistent. This is the second stage of leaning, where the leaner performs skills moderately well, with a little consistency and occasional continuity.
The learner practices the skill according to the information they received in the cognitive stage. For example, a gymnast may perform an arobspring moderately well, but not have straight legs or a presentable entrance or exit.
Another example is in table tennis, when playing a game, a player may be able to hit on one side of the table then the other, but when they are required to hit one extreme after the other, the results are not successful.
A final example is in hockey, where the player can, most of the time, hit the ball correctly, but has a few problems with accuracy i.
It is essential for the performer to gain feedback about their performance at this stage, to understand what they are doing right and wrong. Feedback includes knowledge of performance and results to allow association of kinaesthetic feedback with outcomes.
Therefore the main guidance necessary is verbal, as well as visual for new skills. A lot of learners do not leave this stage for a number of reasons. This is the third and last stage of learning, where the tasks are performed with little or no conscious thought. Attention can now be paid to specialised skills, higher level tactical elements, and other considerations.
There is less time spent on processing and more on generally being aware. For example, a tennis player is, when in this stage, able to serve whilst contemplating opponents next move, rather than the mechanics of the serve.
Another example is in cricket, where the player can bowl consistently to the wicket, with very few going wide. In this case, the bowler is able to take into account to condition of the pitch and the weather when considering how to execute the skill.
A final example is in figure skating, the performer going into a triple salco at exactly the right moment. Most of the feedback is internal, but information from a coach or teacher adds detail and specificity. People often go back to the last stage for various reasons, and then move to the next stage again.
Therefore the stages of learning could be described as a continuum. It is also a continuum in the way that feedback gradually goes from visual and verbal to internal and kinaesthetic. They often have to return to the cognitive stage to check the mental image they have.
Anxiety, lack of motivation, boredom, emotional problems, fatigue, lack of training, are all reasons for reversibility.Learning is the process of producing relatively permanent changes in behaviour as a result of practice.
‘Fitts and Posner’ () were interested in this and the detail of the kinds of changes and phases that learners go through when acquiring a skill. In this essay I will explain Fitt’s and Posner’s phases of learning and how I would structure practises to enhance performance.
By practising a skill we can become better. Fitts and Posner theories were that everyone has to go through stages of learning, known as the cognitive, associative and autonomous stages of learning. Fitts and Posner's Phases of Learning Essay Words | 4 Pages Fitts and Posner's Phases of Learning "Performance may be thought of as a temporary occurrence â€¦ fluctuating from time to time because of many potentially operating variables.
Fitts & Posners Phases of Learning Words | 6 Pages. Fitts & Posners Phases of Learning An often-quoted phrase about practice, usually to encourage children to keep working and to keep repeating the same task, is that 'practice makes perfect'.
The theory also contradicts the quote “practices makes perfect”, Fitt’s and Posner’s theory is more like correct practice with correct technique makes perfect practice”. Fitt’s and Posner’s () have introduced the three phases of learning to skill acquisition, . Discuss ‘Fitts and Posner’s’ Phases of Learning Essay Sample ‘Learning is a more or less permanent change in performance brought about by experience.'(Knapp ) To elevate in skill, you need to practise correctly-‘Correct practise leads to improvement’ (John Honeyrourne, Michael Hill and Helen Moors, Physical Education and sport) All aspects of sport require learning.