Similarly, ethical value may be regarded as a subgroup of a broader field of philosophic value sometimes referred to as axiology. Ethical value denotes something's degree of importancewith the aim of determining what action or life is best to do, or at least attempt to describe the value of different actions. Similar concepts[ edit ] Ethical value is sometimes used synonymously with goodness.
Li also means religious rites which establish relations between humanity and the gods. According to Stephan Feuchtwang, rites are conceived as "what makes the invisible visible", making possible for humans to cultivate the underlying order of nature.
Correctly performed rituals move society in alignment with earthly and heavenly astral forces, Ethical systems are exclusive the harmony of the three realms—Heaven, Earth and humanity. Among all things of creation, humans themselves are "central" because they have the ability to cultivate and centre natural forces.
Confucius includes in his discussions of li such diverse topics as learning, tea drinking, titles, mourning, and governance. Xunzi cites "songs and laughter, weeping and lamentation Confucius envisioned proper government being guided by the principles of li.
Some Confucians proposed that all human beings may pursue perfection by learning and practising li. Overall, Confucians believe that governments should place more emphasis on li and rely much less on penal punishment when they govern.
Confucius himself did not propose that "might makes right," but rather that a superior should be obeyed because of his moral rectitude. In addition, loyalty does not mean subservience to authority.
This is because reciprocity is demanded from the superior as well.
As Confucius stated "a prince should employ his minister according to the rules of propriety; ministers should serve their prince with faithfulness loyalty. If the ruler is evil, then the people have the right to overthrow him.
In later ages, however, emphasis was often placed more on the obligations of the ruled to the ruler, and less on the ruler's obligations to the ruled. Like filial piety, loyalty was often subverted by the autocratic regimes in China. Nonetheless, throughout the ages, many Confucians continued to fight against unrighteous superiors and rulers.
Many of these Confucians suffered and sometimes died because of their conviction and action. This may be true especially in times of social chaos, such as during the period of the Ming-Qing transition.
Filial piety In Confucian philosophy, filial piety Chinese: Filial piety is considered a key virtue in Chinese cultureand it is the main concern of a large number of stories. These stories depict how children exercised their filial piety in the past.
While China has always had a diversity of religious beliefs, filial piety has been common to almost all of them; historian Hugh D. Baker calls respect for the family the only element common to almost all Chinese believers.
Reciprocity or responsibility renqing extends beyond filial piety and involves the entire network of social relations, even the respect for rulers. There is government, when the prince is prince, and the minister is minister; when the father is father, and the son is son.
Analects XII, 11, tr. Legge Particular duties arise from one's particular situation in relation to others. The individual stands simultaneously in several different relationships with different people: While juniors are considered in Confucianism to owe their seniors reverence, seniors also have duties of benevolence and concern toward juniors.
The same is true with the husband and wife relationship where the husband needs to show benevolence towards his wife and the wife needs to respect the husband in return.
This theme of mutuality still exists in East Asian cultures even to this day.The main types of ethical systems include ethical relativism, divine command theory, deontology, utilitarianism and virtue ethics. These ethical systems stem from the study of moral philosophy and are influenced by the thought of Aristotle and Kant.
Continue Reading. Keep Learning. Ethical egoism and utilitarianism are examples of teleological theories. W hile these descriptions appear to draw a clear distinction between theoretical perspectives, . Ethical systems are exclusive, meaning that their defining precepts never overlap with other ethical systems.
True or False? False _____ refer to the study of duty or moral obligation emphasizing the intent of the actor or good will as the element of morality. Deontological ethical system. Major Ethical Systems When learning how to resolve ethical dilemmas, it is important to be able to articulate a justifiable rationale for why we believe one decision seems right and another seems yunusemremert.com a basic understanding of the major ethical theories will help us toward an ethical resolution learning how to articulate and justify the decision.
Ethical egoism and utilitarianism are examples of teleological theories. W hile these descriptions appear to draw a clear distinction between theoretical perspectives, the two categories are not mutually exclusive.
Negotiation is commonly defined as a decision-making process by which two or more people or groups agree on how to allocate scarce resources. Negotiations do not occur in a .