George Orwell Reflections on Gandhi Saints should always be judged guilty until they are proved innocent, but the tests that have to be applied to them are not, of course, the same in all cases. In Gandhi's case the questions on feels inclined to ask are:
Rudyard Kipling Essay It was a pity that Mr. Eliot should be so much on the defensive in the long essay with which he prefaces this selection of Kipling's poetry, but it was not to be avoided, because before one can even speak about Kipling one has to clear away a legend that has been created by two sets of people who have not read his works.
Kipling is in the peculiar position of having been a byword for fifty years. During five literary generations every enlightened person has despised him, and at the end of that time nine-tenths of Essay on pacifism enlightened persons are forgotten and Kipling is in some sense still there.
Eliot never satisfactorily explains this fact, because in answering the Essay on pacifism and familiar charge that Kipling is a 'Fascist', he falls into the opposite error of defending him where he is not defensible.
It is no use pretending that Kipling's view of life, as a whole, can be accepted or even forgiven by any civilized person.
It is no use claiming, for instance, that when Kipling describes a British soldier beating a 'nigger' with a cleaning rod in order to get money out of him, he is acting merely as a reporter and does not necessarily approve what he describes.
There is not the slightest sign anywhere in Kipling's work that he disapproves of that kind of conduct--on the contrary, there is a definite strain of sadism in him, over and above the brutality which a writer of that type has to have.
Kipling is a jingo imperialist, he is morally insensitive and aesthetically disgusting. It is better to start by admitting that, and then to try to find out why it is that he survives while the refined people who have sniggered at him seem to wear so badly.
And yet the 'Fascist' charge has to be answered, because the first clue to any understanding of Kipling, morally or politically, is the fact that he was NOT a Fascist.
He was further from being one than the most humane or the most 'progressive' person is able to be nowadays. An interesting instance of the way in which quotations are parroted to and fro without any attempt to look up their context or discover their meaning is the line from 'Recessional', 'Lesser breeds without the Law'.
This line is always good for a snigger in pansy-left circles. It is assumed as a matter of course that the 'lesser breeds' are 'natives', and a mental picture is called up of some pukka sahib in a pith helmet kicking a coolie.
In its context the sense of the line is almost the exact opposite of this. The phrase 'lesser breeds' refers almost certainly to the Germans, and especially the pan-German writers, who are 'without the Law' in the sense of being lawless, not in the sense of being powerless.
The whole poem, conventionally thought of as an orgy of boasting, is a denunciation of power politics, British as well as German. Two stanzas are worth quoting I am quoting this as politics, not as poetry: If, drunk with sight of power, we loose Wild tongues that have not Thee in awe, Such boastings as the Gentiles use, Or lesser breeds without the Law-- Lord God of hosts, be with us yet, Lest we forget--lest we forget!
For heathen heart that puts her trust In reeking tube and iron shard, All valiant dust that builds on dust, And guarding, calls not Thee to guard, For frantic boast and foolish word-- Thy mercy on Thy People, Lord! No one, in our time, believes in any sanction greater than military power; no one believes that it is possible to overcome force except by greater force.
There is no 'Law', there is only power. I am not saying that that is a true belief, merely that it is the belief which all modern men do actually hold. Those who pretend otherwise are either intellectual cowards, or power-worshippers under a thin disguise, or have simply not caught up with the age they are living in.
Kipling's outlook is prefascist.
He does not foresee the tank, the bombing plane, the radio and the secret police, or their psychological results. But in saying this, does not one unsay what I said above about Kipling's jingoism and brutality? No, one is merely saying that the nineteenth-century imperialist outlook and the modern gangster outlook are two different things.
Kipling belongs very definitely to the period The Great War and its aftermath embittered him, but he shows little sign of having learned anything from any event later than the Boer War. All his confidence, his bouncing vulgar vitality, sprang out of limitations which no Fascist or near-Fascist shares.
Kipling spent the later part of his life in sulking, and no doubt it was political disappointment rather than literary vanity that account for this.Looking back on the Spanish War, the essay of George Orwell.
First published: by/in New Road, GB, London. Click on the image to go to the Amazon page. Writing tips from the essay: Use analogies (you can make it funny or dramatic to achieve a better effect): “Don’t be afraid,” the waiter said, and he talked to the kookaburra in a soothing, respectful voice, the way you might to a child with a switchblade in his hand”.
The Impact of Hope on Helen Keller, Elie Wiesel, and My Life - There are people all over the world now who are scared and feel like there is no hope for them, but many people keep going, pushing, fighting through the tough times.
Politics of Nonviolence World Peace Essay. To What Ex t ent i s Non-vi ol enc e a Sol ut i on i n Cr eat i ng a Dur abl e Wor l d. - Pacifism covers an array of views and there are many subcategories of pacifism, some of which I will cover, but the main definition of the word pacifism is the opposition to war and/or violence.
Perhaps the most famous use of the word pacifism is found in the “Sermon on the Mount”, where Jesus claims the “peacemakers” are blessed. Was Jesus a Pacifist? Andrew Fulford | January 18, Christian Ethics | Fall More is said on this beatitude in Marc LiVecche’s essay in this issue.
Jesus, the Law, & the Prophets He is the author of Jesus and Pacifism and a contributor to the recently released Richard Hooker and Reformed Orthodoxy.