They could not help Poland much and only sent a small French attack on Germany from the West.
The most important new activity in German-occupied Europe was the appearance of organized civilian resistance. At first, there were only individual acts of defiance, like that of the Dutch film projectionist who ran a newsreel of advancing Germans backward, to the brief delight of his audience.
But the resistance movements took shape in every country and grew to become a major problem in policing for the Germans as the war turned against the Nazi regime.
The resistance movements destroyed military installations and attacked Germany's war economy by blowing up power plants, railroads, and other vital elements in the system.
In retaliation, the Nazis increased the severity of the military occupation, imprisoned and executed hostages. Thus a shadow form of civil war intensified as the regular war front crumbled before the Germans.
Civilian life was plagued by shortages of food, fuel, medicine.
But the most pressing problem was housing, and this most drastic in Germany. Consider only the following single statistical unit: On August 24,the German city of Koenigsberg was attacked by British bombers.
The reconstruction of Germany after World War II was a long process. Germany had suffered heavy losses during the war, both in lives and industrial power. to million Germans had been killed, roughly to percent of the population (see also World War II casualties). Editor’s note: We are pleased to again welcome Philip Leigh, who brings us a long-form guest post on how the Reconstruction shaped the southern states. If students of World War II were to be asked which single organisation contributed most to the defeat of the Axis forces of Germany and Japan, between and , most would probably agree that it was the code breakers at Bletchley Park GCCS, forerunner of GCHQ .
The estimated damage of the raid was one hundred and thirty-four thousand people made homeless, and sixty-one thousand people forced to live in badly damaged houses. After the war, new cities had to be built - Coventry, Rotterdam, and Berlin being examples - and they were technocratically planned.
With an irony that once again underlined the fact that history is a human affair, the destruction of the war brought about considerable reorganization. Even before the war, the Soviet leadership began the relocation of Russian industry in and beyond the Ural Mountains so that it would not be susceptible to immediate ground attack from the West.
During the war the Germans decentralized industrial production by dispersing aircraft factories around the country in order to protect them against concentrated bombing attack.
And under the German occupation, the puppet government of France, known as the Vichy Regime from the city in which its capital was located, sought economic reorganization and began the foundations of what would be postwar planning under Jean Bichelonne, an engineering professor who was Minister of Production and Transport.
Even more unusual, and with effects not easily measurable, was the intellectual migration the war produced. In the s eminent scientists like Albert Einstein had left Nazi Germany, but immediately after the war, both the United States and Russia undertook a rushed treasure hunt as they sought to find and then utilize German scientists, notably those involved in rocket research.
Werner von Braun, guiding genius of German war rocketry, came to the United States, eventually became an American citizen, and is today recognized as the technocratic father of American space efforts. Thus, the war destroyed and forced the rearrangement of much of the old social and economic structure of Europe, just as it rearranged the political map.
The truth is the European world we now know was born in debris. The War in a Global Setting No balanced historical analysis can afford to treat the European war as disunified from the global war.
Among the major continents, only Latin America was spared serious involvement. Even Australia, traditionally known as "down under," feared Japanese invasion. And American blimps patrolled the Atlantic coast of this formerly "isolated" nation in search of preying submarines.
For once in military engagement, the world was viewed from above. While it is certainly true that the infantry soldier struggled and sacrificed to defeat the enemy, and ultimate victory was his, the war of the air was all important.
The fighter defense of Great Britain and the bomber offensive against Germany after altered the proportions of the war. In a tone of despair, the British prime minister, Stanley Baldwin, had said in"The bombers will always get through.
Across the world, the Pacific naval war was essentially an aerial war, with aircraft carriers serving as seaborne take-off points. The dramatic sinking of the magnificent and brand-new British battleship the Prince of Wales by Japanese torpedo bombers on December 10,can be taken as the symbolic end of the age of battleships.
Thus, the first major naval warfare since the Napoleonic era also announced the end of traditional naval warfare. Again the war of the air triumphed.World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from to , although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies.
HISTORY ERAS • The First Americans • Colonial Era • American Revolution • Early National Period • Pre-Civil War Era • Slavery • Civil War • Reconstruction • Gilded Age • America Becomes a World Power • Progressive Era • World War I • s • Great Depression • World War II • Post-War Era • s • Vietnam War • • The 21st Century.
To learn more about post-war Europe and the Marshall Plan, review the accompanying lesson titled Economic Reconstruction in Europe After WWII: Recovery Programs & Their Effect. The reconstruction of Germany after World War II was a long process.
Germany had suffered heavy losses during the war, both in lives and industrial power. to million Germans had been killed, roughly to percent of the population (see also World War II casualties). Editor’s note: We are pleased to again welcome Philip Leigh, who brings us a long-form guest post on how the Reconstruction shaped the southern states.
The German occupation of Belgium (French: Occupation allemande, Dutch: Duitse bezetting) during World War II began on 28 May when the Belgian army surrendered to German forces and lasted until Belgium's liberation by the Western Allies between September and February It was the second time that Germany had occupied Belgium in under thirty years.