Oath of the Horatii, oil on canvas, 3. Rococo is a decorative style of the early to midth century derived from the French word rocaille meaning shell. Rococo primarily influenced the ornamental arts in Europe, especially in France, southern Germany and Austria, and is marked by asymmetry, naturalism, pastel colors, light-heartedness and delicate shell-like and watery forms.
Merovingian art Merovingian art is the art and architecture of the Merovingian dynasty of the Frankswhich lasted from the fifth century to the eighth century in present-day France and Germany. The advent of the Merovingian dynasty in Gaul during the fifth century led to important changes in the arts.
In architecture, there was no longer the desire to build robust and harmonious buildings. Sculpture regressed to being little more than a simple technique for the ornamentation of sarcophagialtarsand ecclesiastical furniture.
On the other hand, the rise of gold work and manuscript illumination brought about a resurgence of Celtic decoration, which, with Christian and other contributions, constitutes the basis of Merovingian art.
The unification of the Frankish kingdom under Clovis I — and his successors, corresponded with the need to build churches. The plans for them probably were copied from Roman basilicas. Unfortunately, these timber structures have not survived because of destruction by fire, whether accidental or caused by the Normans at the time of their incursions.
Carolingian art Aachen Gospels, c. The Carolingian era is the first period of the Medieval art movement known as Pre-Romanesque. For the first time, Northern European kings patronized classical Mediterranean Roman art forms, blending classical forms with Germanic ones, creating entirely new innovations in figurine line drawing, and setting the stage for the rise of Romanesque art and, eventually, Gothic art in the West.
Illuminated manuscripts, metalwork, small-scale sculpture, mosaics, and frescos survive from the period. The Carolingians also undertook major architectural building campaigns at numerous churches in France.
The Centula Abbey of Saint-Riquier Sommecompleted inwas a major achievement in monastic architecture. With the end of Carolingian rule aroundartistic production halted for almost three generations.
After the demise of the Carolingian Empire, France split into a number of feuding provinces, lacking any organized patronage. French art of the tenth and eleventh centuries was produced by local monasteries to promote literacy and piety, however, the primitive styles produced were not so highly skilled as the techniques of the earlier Carolingian period.
Multiple regional styles developed based on the chance availability of Carolingian manuscripts as models to copy, and the availability of itinerant artists. The monastery of Saint Bertin became an important center under its abbot Odbert —who created a new style based on Anglo-Saxon and Carolingian forms.
The nearby abbey of St. Vaast Pas-de-Calais also created a number of important works. In southwestern France a number of manuscripts were produced c. In Normandy a new style arose in By the later tenth century with the Cluny reform movement and a revived spirit for the concept of Empire, art production resumed.
Romanesque art Romanesque art refers to the art of Western Europe during a period of one hundred and fifty years, from approximately AD to the rise of the Gothic stylewhich arose in the middle of the twelfth century in France.
Interior of the Chapelle Haute, Sainte ChapelleParis Most Romanesque sculpture was integrated into church architecture, not only for aesthetic, but also for structural purposes. Small-scale sculpture during the pre-Romanesque period was influenced by Byzantine and Early Christian sculpture.
Other elements were adopted from various local styles of Middle Eastern countries. Motifs were derived from the arts of the "barbarian," such as grotesque figures, beasts, and geometric patterns, which were all important additions, particularly in the regions north of the Alps.
Among the important sculptural works of the period are the ivory carvings at the monastery of Saint Gall. Monumental sculpture was rarely practised separately from architecture in the Pre-Romanesque period. For the first time after the fall of the Roman empire, monumental sculpture emerged as a significant art form.
Monumental doors, baptismal fonts, and candle holders, frequently decorated with scenes from biblical history, were cast in bronze, attesting to the skills of the contemporary metalworkers.
Frescoes were applied to the vaults and walls of churches. Rich textiles and precious objects in gold and silver, such as chalices and reliquaries, were produced in increasing numbers to meet the needs of the liturgy, and to serve the cult of the saints.The French Revolution also borrowed symbols from classical mythology, the Enlightenment and the American Revolution.
One of the most famous was the bonnet rouge or ‘liberty cap’. This symbol, derived from the ancient Phrygian cap given to liberated slaves, was used extensively during the American Revolution.
During the first half of the century, France replaced Italy as the artistic centre and main artistic influence in Europe and many French artists worked in other courts across the continent. The latter half of the eighteenth century continued to see French preeminence in Europe, particularly through the arts and sciences, and the speaking the French language was expected for members of the European courts.
The French Revolution of is an important landmark in the history of Europe. It was the first great uprising of the people against the autocracy of the ruler. It generated ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity which crossed the boundaries of France and influenced whole of Europe.
The French Revolution was recognized as a turning point in the history of both the destruction and preservation of art Transformation of Cultural Institutions: 1) Schools New schools had same curriculum and books.
There were two major movements that had importance in the arts, architecture and literature during the french revolution Other artistic movements During the revolution, also there where more artistic movements, but there was one that have also an important prescience in the period of the French Revolution Brief Explanation of what was french revolution The french revolution, was a and event .
A New Patriotic Song, from a collection of material relating to the fear of a French invasion. This ballad sheet from typically demonstrates publications encouraging loyalty to Britain as a reaction to the instability of the French Revolution.